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如何提高英语听写的准确率

作者:婷婷张 · 发布时间:2019-11-06 09:43:36

听写是一项复杂的脑手相结合的活动。它不仅需要用耳朵去辨别声音信息,而且要求对经过耳杂输入大脑的信号进行处理,再通过手迅速准确地记录下来。实践证明,这是一项培养和测试学生语言能力的重要方法。专家证实,在短时间内;要测验出一个人的英语水平,听写和做综合填充题就很好。为避免多项选择的偏差,近年来四、六级统考以及全国高等教育自学考试的英语听力科目都增加了听写试题。其中四、六级听写占听力总分的50%(10分);自考听写占总分的30%(30分)。由此可见听写的重要性。

(1)听写测试的形式
听写的测试方法有多种,较常见的有以下几种:第一种是单纯的单句、段落或短文听写(Dictation),一般播放三遍,第一遍为正常语速;第二遍稍慢(有时还在每句间留出一定时间供记录);第三遍为正常语速。此种为自考所采用。第二种是传统式听写填空(Spot Dictation)。它给出一篇100~200字短文,短文按一定规律(每隔7个单词)留出空白,要求学生根据录音填空,每空一词。此种多出现在听力教程和小型测试中。第三种和第四种为近几年四、六级统考中使用的两种新题型,即Spot Dictation和Compound Dictation。前者虽然也叫Spot Dictation,但实际的测试形式已有所变化。试题册上给出一篇不完整(约10处空)约120字的短文,要求考生根据录音在空格处填入一个句子(一般在15个词以下)或者填入句子的一个部分(几个词或一个词组),共约50个词。所填入的内容往往是关键词或与中心思想相关的内容。全文以“大纲”规定的语速朗读三遍,第一遍没有停顿,供考生听懂全文大意;第二遍在空格后有停顿(约7秒),要求考生把听到的内容填人空格;第三遍与第一遍一样,没有停顿,供考生进行核对。
与传统听写填空的不同之处在于:
①空格位置没有规律。
②填充内容由原来的一个词增加到若干个(平均每空5个词),乃至填写句子。因此,在难度上比传统式填空有所增加。下面是一篇Spot Dictation的样题。
Believe it or not, 43 000 000 Americans are gardening. That’s about one in six. Gardeners, of course, come in many varieties. Not surprisingly, most of them are people who live in the suburbs, and enjoy planting flowers, or maybe a small vegetable garden.
The average age of gardeners in America is about 45 years old; they usually fall somewhere in the middle class. But the fastest growing groups are city dwellers. Urban residents are finding ways of gardening even in their crowded areas. Many go to large public gardens, as a place designed by the city for garden, and you can actually ranch your own plot.
Still other people use their balconies or roof tops, wherever they can find the space to plant small patches of green.
我们再来看Compound Dictation(复合式听写)。它包括两部分:第一部分要求考生根据录音内容准确填出空格里的词汇,一般为一个单词,全段共填8-10个单词;第二部分要求考生听完后写出该部分的文章重点(main points);
复合式听写的全文内容约250字,共朗读三遍。第一遍为全文朗读,语速正常,中间无停顿;第二遍朗读时在文章第一部分每个空格后略有停顿,供考生填写所缺单词;在文章第二部分念完后有约5分钟时间,让考生根据所听内容写出主要意思;第三遍又以正常语速朗读全文,没有停顿。此类题旨在考核学生的听、记能力和书面表达能力。有一点需要提醒大家的是,导言中特别要求考生:“After listening to the second part of the passage, you are required to write down the main points according to what you have heard'’,也就是说你不能照录音原文做记录,而应在听懂全文后进行归纳,并用自己的话简炼地将要点表达出来。
以下是一篇Compound Dictation的第二部分,划线部分为所缺内容,要求考生根据这部分内容,归纳出要点。
In general, when moving about a city at night, it is wise to keep to the more traveled and better lighted streets. If you must travel through areas of a city that are considered dangerous or deserted, you should go by bus or taxi rather than on foot.Avoid parks after dark since they too are likely to be deserted.
Some cities have special telephone numbers to report a fire or call the police. You will find these listed in the front of the telephone book and on public telephones. If the number is not posted, you can reach the police or fire department by calling the operator on the telephone.If you have an automobile accident, you should call the police and wait until they arrive.
应写的内容要点:
①A.You shoul go to a dangerous part of a city by bus or taxi instead of going on foot.
B.Don’t go through parks after dark.
②A.Try to have some important telephone numbers in case of danger.
B.The other way to get through to the police is to call the operator on the phone.
但也有一种复合式听写是要求考生根据录音写出7个单词和三个完整句子,由于句子不算太复杂,也允许考生根据原文听写记录。

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